2.2 The Crusades

Why was Constantinople important?

Step 1: Go to the ArcGIS Online map, The Crusades and explore the map.

Step 2: Click Bookmarks, and choose Constantinople.

  • Why is Constantinople strategic?

Step 3: Click Marker A.

  • Alexius wrote a letter asking for help to protect Holy Land sites.

Where were the Crusades, and why did they take place?

Step 4: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select Europe, Middle Ages. Click and read Marker B.

  • Pope Urban called for a Crusade to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims. (T/F)
  • Where did the Crusades originate?
  • What was the destination of the Crusades?

What was the destination of the Crusades?

Step 5: With the Details button depressed, click the button, Contents.

Step 6: Click the checkbox to the left of the layer name, Crusader Stories.

Step 7: Click each symbol and read the statements.

  • Why did individuals join the Crusades?

Why was the First Crusade significant?

Step 8: Turn off the layers, Sources, and Crusader Stories.

Step 9: Filter the Crusades layer. The Filter is only available for specific map layers. In the Contents pane, point to a layer and click the Filter button beneath the layer name. Set the Filter parameters to: Name is First Crusade. Choose Zoom To.

  • Where did the First Crusade begin?

Step 10: Use the Measure tool to estimate the distances.

  • How far was the journey from Regensburg to Constantinople?
  • How far was the journey from Constantinople to Jerusalem?
  • Based on the rate of overland travel of 25 miles per day during the Middle Ages, how long would the entire journey take?

The Crusaders recaptured Jerusalem in July 1099, but could not defend it.

How did the routes of the Crusades differ?

Step 11: Remove the Filter.

  • What do you notice about the route of the Third Crusade?

Step 12: Filter the Crusades layer so that Name is Fourth Crusade and choose Zoom To.

  • What was unusual about the Fourth Crusade was that it ended in Constantinople and did not go to Jerusalem. 
  • What would be some long-term effects of the routes of the Crusades?

How did the Crusader states affect the region?

Step 13: Turn on the layer, Crusader States.

Step 14: Press the button, Bookmarks. Select Crusader States.

Step 15: Click each state.

  • The purpose of the Crusader states were to provide protection and keep a military presence nearby. (T/F)
  • Edessa became the most geographically vulnerable Crusader state because it was surrounded by the Turks. (T/F)


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World Regional Geography Lab Manual by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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