In this assignment, you will also discover the variation of toponyms in different regions of the world. Next, you will explore how not all distances are equally distant.
- Identify and explain locations in the Americas where French, English, and Spanish toponyms are present today.
- Explain why the root language of toponyms in North America varies from region to region.
- Visualize and analyze variations in the time-space compression.
You Claim It; You Name It Ask: What is a toponym?
Step 1: Go to the ArcGIS Online map, You Claim It, You Name It, and explore the map.
Step 2: Open and read the map note located inside North America (in North Dakota).
- Q1: Whom was North America named after?
Step 3: Open and read the map note located off the west coast of North America.
- Q2: What is the language of origin?
Acquire: What is the toponymy of the East Coast?
Step 4: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select the Eastern Canada bookmark.
- Q3: Which languages were used for place names?
Language, another cultural trait, also influenced these place names.
Step 5: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select East Coast.
Step 6: With the Details button underlined, click the button, Show Contents of Map (Content).
Step 7: Click the checkbox to the left of the layer name, Settlements – 1655.
Step 8: To display a legend, click on the layer name, Settlements – 1655.
- Q4: Where were the French settlements concentrated?
- Q5: Where were the English settlements?
Explore: What major migrations helped define California toponyms
Step 9: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select California-Local.
- Q6: Which languages were used for place names?
Step 10: Turn on the layer, Missions.
- Q7: Why did the Spanish build missions in California?
- Q8: What spatial patterns do you notice?
Step 11: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select California-Regional.
Step 12: Turn on the layer, Mining Towns.
- Q9: How were missions and mining settlements distributed?
Analyze: How does Trinidad’s toponymy compare to Canada and California?
Step 13: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select the West Indies bookmark.
Step 14: Open and read the map note near Cuba.
The reason why the area is called the West Indies is that Christopher Columbus thought he was in Asia.
Step 15: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select the Trinidad bookmark.
Step 16: Turn on the layer, Trinidad Toponyms. Click the layer name to display its legend.
- Q10: What were the dominant languages used for Trinidad’s place names?
Act: What is the relationship between colonization and toponyms?
Step 17: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select the European Claims bookmark.
Step 18: Turn on the layer, Claims. Click the layer name to display the legend.
- Q11: How are regional place names in the Americas tied to colonization?
- Q12: Besides toponyms, colonization and these early claims affect religion, language, architecture, and more. True/False
Distance and Scale
Ask: Are all miles “equally” distant?
Step 1: Go to the ArcGIS Online map, Distance and Scale, above to launch the map.
Distances can feel more substantial or smaller because of cultural similarities, transportation connectivity, telecommunications, and more.
Acquire: How far can you get?
Step 2: With the Details button underlined, click the button, Show Contents of Map (Content).
Step 3: Check the box to the left of the layer name, Drive Time From Boston (60, 90, 120 minutes).
- Q13: Which major city in New Hampshire can you reach in less than an hour?
- Q14: How long would it take to get to Providence, R.I.?
Explore: Are we taking the long way around?
Both Manchester and Worchester are at the outer edge of the 60-minute drive time zone. However, as the crow flies, it is 38 miles to Worchester and 48 miles to Manchester.
- Q15: What city located less than 50 miles from Boston (as the crow flies), but cannot be accessed in a 120-minute drive (hint: water contributes to the time).
- Q16: Why is travel time so long?
The other forms of transportation, such as water and air travel, might change travel time and accessibility.
Analyze: How is population density related to travel time?
Step 4: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select BOS-MHT/WOR.
Step 5: Turn on the layer, Population Density – Census Tracts.
Step 6: Compare the Population Density and Drive Time layers by turning them on and off.
- Q17: What is the relationship between the drive time and population density?
Act: How do highways affect travel time?
Step 7: Turn off the layers, Drive Time from Boston (xx xx xx Minutes).
Step 8: Change the transparency of the Population Density – Census Tracts layers to 50 percent. From the Details pane, click the Content button. Click the three small blue dots and hover your pointer over the word “Transparency” to open a drop-down list. You can modify the transparency to see an active layer below the top layer. Set it to 50 percent.
Step 9: Click the button, Bookmarks. Select Traffic.
- Q18: How are major roads and population distributions related?
- Q19: Would travel be faster through a more densely populated or less densely populated area? Explain.
Digital Geography by R. Adam Dastrup is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://www.esri.com/en-us/industries/education/schools/geoinquiries-human-geography.